Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
and Company, 1887-1889 and 1999. Virtualology.com advises that these 19th Century
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SMITH, John Eugene, soldier, born in the canton of Berne, Switzerland, 3 August, 1816. His father was an officer under Napoleon, and after the emperor's downfall emigrated to Philadelphia, where the son received an academic education and became a jeweler. He entered the National army in 1861 as colonel of the 45th Illinois infantry, engaged in the capture of Fort Henry and Fort Donelson, and in the battle of Shiloh and siege of Corinth, became brigadier-general of volunteers, 29 November, 1862, commanded the 8th division of the 16th army corps in December, 1862, was engaged in the Vicksburg campaign, leading the 3d division of the 17th corps in June, 1863, and was transferred to the 15th corps in September, taking part in the capture of Mission Ridge, and in the Atlanta and Carolina campaigns in 1864-'5. In December, 1870, he was assigned to the 14th United States infantry. He was mustered out of the volunteer service (n April, 1866, and became colonel of the 27th United States infantry in July of that year. He received the brevet of major-general of volunteers on 12 January, 1865, for faithful services and gallantry in action, and the brevets of brigadier- and major-general, United States army, on 2 March, 1867, for his conduct at the siege of Vicksburg and in action at Savannah in December, 1864. In May, 1881, he was retired.
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In this powerful, historic work, Stan Klos unfolds the complex 15-year U.S.
Founding period revealing, for the first time, four distinctly different United
American Republics. This is history on a splendid scale -- a book about the not
quite unified American Colonies and States that would eventually form a fourth
republic, with only 11 states, the United States of America: We The