Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
and Company, 1887-1889 and 1999. Virtualology.com advises that these 19th Century
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SCHARF, John Thomas, author, born in Baltimore, Maryland, 1 May, 1843. He entered the countinghouse of his father, Thomas G. Scharf, of Baltimore, when sixteen years of age. In the beginning of the civil war he joined a Confederate battery, was engaged in the battles around Richmond in 1862, was wounded at Cedar Mountain, at the second battle of Bull Run, and again at Chancellorsville, and on 20 June, 1863, was appointed a midshipman in the Confederate navy. In January, 1864, he took part in the capture of the steamer "Underwriter," near New Berne, North Carolina He rejoined the army after all the ports were blockaded, and was captured in Maryland while on his way to Canada with despatches. After the war he engaged in mercantile business, then in journalism, and in 1874 was admitted to the bar. In 1878 he was a member of the legislature. Since 1884 he has been commissioner of the land office of Maryland. Georgetown college gave him the degree of LL.D. in 1885. He has been editor of the Baltimore "Telegram" and "Morning Herald." Besides many historical addresses and magazine articles, he has published "Chronicles of Baltimore" (Baltimore, 1874) ; "History of Maryland" (3 vols., 1879); " History of Baltimore City and County" (Philadelphia, 1881); " History of Western Maryland" (2 vols., 1882); " History of St. Louis" (2 vols., 1884); "History of Philadelphia" (3 vols., 1884); " History of Westchester County, New York" (2 vols., 1886) ; "History of the Confederate States Navy from the Laying of the First Keel to the Sinking of the Last Vessel" (1887); and "History of the State of Delaware" (1888). He is now (1888) preparing a life of Jefferson Davis and a "Biographical Dictionary of Maryland." SCHAUFFLER, William Gottlieb, missionary, born in Stuttgart, Germany, 22 August, 1798; died in New York city, 27 January, 1883. He emigrated to Odessa, Russia, with his parents and about 400 others, in 1804, and adopted his father's trade, that of a maker of wooden musical instruments. In 1820 the preaching of Ignatius Lindl, a Roman Catholic priest of evangelical views, turned his thoughts toward religion, and he resolved to devote his life to mission work. After serving as an independent missionary in Turkey in 1826 he made his way to the United States, with no property but his clothes, his flute, and one dollar in money, and entered Andover theological seminary, where he supported himself for a time by turning wooden bed-posts. He was graduated in 1830, ordained on 14 November, 1831, and returned to Turkey under the auspices of the American board. He married an American lady soon afterward, and resided chiefly in Constantinople during his missionary service of forty-four years, laboring principally among the Jews and Armenians. In 1843 he was instrumental in persuading Sir Stratford Canning, the British minister, to interfere in behalf of members of the latter race that had been persecuted by the Armenian patriarch. For his efforts in behalf of the German colony in Constantinople he received a decoration from the king of Prussia. From 1839 till 1842 he resided in Vienna engaged in translating the Scriptures into Hebrew-Spanish. The work was published in that city in two quarto volumes. He made a visit to this country in 1857-'8, and from 1877, three years after his retirement from active work, resided here till his death. The University of Halle gave him the degree of D. D. in 1867, and Princeton that of LL.D. in 1879. Dr. Schauffler was a scholar of fine attainments, being "able to speak ten languages and read as many more." Besides the work mentioned above, he was the author of a translation of the Bible into Turkish, which received high praise. His English publications include, besides single sermons, "Essay on the Right Use of Property" (Boston, 1832), and "Meditations on the Last Days of Christ" (1837" new eds., 1853 and 1858). See his "Autobiography," edited by his sons, with an introduction by Professor Edwards A. Park (New York, 1887).
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In this powerful, historic work, Stan Klos unfolds the complex 15-year U.S.
Founding period revealing, for the first time, four distinctly different United
American Republics. This is history on a splendid scale -- a book about the not
quite unified American Colonies and States that would eventually form a fourth
republic, with only 11 states, the United States of America: We The