Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
and Company, 1887-1889 and 1999. Virtualology.com warns that these 19th Century
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ABASCAL (ab-as-cal'), José Fernando, Spanish soldier,
born in Oviedo, Asturias, in 1743; died in Madrid in 1821. He entered the army
in 1762, and after serving for twenty years was promoted to the rank of colonel,
and during the war against the French to that of brigadier-general.
In 1796 he went to Cuba, assumed the command as viceroy,
and took an active part in the defense of Havana when that City was attacked by
an English fleet. Afterward he was commander in New Galicia, and still later
viceroy of Peru, his great ability and tact being especially beneficial to those
He also defended Buenos Ayres from the English, and at
the same time repressed revolts in Lima and in Cuzco, but being unsuccessful in
some operations, he was recalled in 1816. Four years before he had been created
Marques de la Concordia, in allusion to his conciliatory policy in Peru, which
prevented trouble between the natives and the Spanish residents. See Stevenson's
"Twenty Years' Residence in South America." (London, 1825).
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