The members of this Congress, sincerely devoted, with the warmest sentiments
of affection and duty to His Majesty's Person and Government, inviolably
attached to the present happy establishment of the Protestant succession, and
with minds deeply impressed by a sense of the present and impending misfortunes
of the British colonies on this continent; having considered as maturely as time
will permit the circumstances of the said colonies, esteem it our indispensable
duty to make the following declarations of our humble opinion, respecting the
most essential rights and liberties Of the colonists, and of the grievances
under which they labour, by reason of several late Acts of Parliament.
That His Majesty's subjects in these colonies, owe the same allegiance to
the Crown of Great-Britain, that is owing from his subjects born within the
realm, and all due subordination to that august body the Parliament of Great
That His Majesty's liege subjects in these colonies, are entitled to all
the inherent rights and liberties of his natural born subjects within the
kingdom of Great-Britain.
That it is inseparably essential to the freedom of a people, and the
undoubted right of Englishmen, that no taxes be imposed on them, but with
their own consent, given personally, or by their representatives.
That the people of these colonies are not, and from their local
circumstances cannot be, represented in the House of Commons in
That the only representatives of the people of these colonies, are persons
chosen therein by themselves, and that no taxes ever have been, or can be
constitutionally imposed on them, but by their respective legislatures.
That all supplies to the Crown, being free gifts of the people, it is
unreasonable and inconsistent with the principles and spirit of the British
Constitution, for the people of Great-Britain to grant to His Majesty the
property of the colonists.
That trial by jury is the inherent and invaluable right of every British
subject in these colonies.
That the late Act of Parliament, entitled, An Act for granting and
applying certain Stamp Duties, and other Duties, in the British colonies and
plantations in America, etc., by imposing taxes on the inhabitants of these
colonies, and the said Act, and several other Acts, by extending the
jurisdiction of the courts of Admiralty beyond its ancient limits, have a
manifest tendency to subvert the rights and liberties of the colonists.
That the duties imposed by several late Acts of Parliament, from the
peculiar circumstances of these colonies, will be extremely burthensome and
grievous; and from the scarcity of specie, the payment of them absolutely
That as the profits of the trade of these colonies ultimately center in
Great-Britain, to pay for the manufactures which they are obliged to take
from thence, they eventually contribute very largely to all supplies granted
there to the Crown.
That the restrictions imposed by several late Acts of Parliament, on the
trade of these colonies, will render them unable to purchase the
manufactures of Great-Britain.
That the increase, prosperity, and happiness of these colonies, depend on
the full and free enjoyment of their rights and liberties, and an
intercourse with Great-Britain mutually affectionate and advantageous.
That it is the right of the British subjects in these colonies, to
petition the King, Or either House of Parliament.
Lastly, That it is the
indispensable duty of these colonies, to the best of sovereigns, to the mother
country, and to themselves, to endeavor by a loyal and dutiful address to his
Majesty, and humble applications to both Houses of Parliament, to procure the
repeal of the Act for granting and applying certain stamp duties, of all clauses
of any other Acts of Parliament, whereby the jurisdiction of the Admiralty is
extended as aforesaid, and of the other late Acts for the restriction of
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